The Prevalence of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases Producing Gram-Negative Bacteria in Patients with Otitis Media
Background: Most gram-negative pathogenic bacteria are responsible for extendedspectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) production, which show resistance to some newer generation of antibiotics. Aim: The present study aims to determine the prevalence of ESBL producing gram-negative bacteria in patients with otitis media (OM) attending some hospitals in Kano. Materials and Methods: A total of 167 ear swab samples were collected from Hasiya Bayero Pediatric Hospital and Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospital, Kano. The samples were bacteriologically processed, the isolates phenotypically identified and ESBL production was also phenotypically identified. Results: A total of 98 (58.7%) gram-negative bacteria were isolated out of which 36 (21.6%) were Klebsiella pneumoniae. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Proteus species each having 32 isolates (19.2%), 19 (11.4%),11 (6.6%) respectively. These isolates were further screened for antimicrobial susceptibility and ESBLs production. The highest prevalence of otitis media was recorded among patients aged ≤10 years having a prevalence of 42.5% (71), while individuals aged ≥18 years had the lowest prevalence of otitis media with a prevalence of 11.9% (20). The result of the sensitivity testing showed that most of the isolate was resistant to cotrimoxazole (25μg), but sensitive to gentamicin (10μg), ofloxacin (5μg) and ceftriazone (30μg).
While only three isolates (3.06%) were found to be ESBL producers. Conclusion: This study showed that gentamicin, ofloxacin and ceftriazone were effective in the treatment of OM. Furthermore, the present study reported a lower prevalence of ESBL producing bacteria among subjects with otitis media. However, the fear of the spread of such few isolates and the consequences of infection with such bacteria warrant urgent health care and public health attention. Keywords: ESBL, Otitis Media, Gram-Negative